If you are in the market for a transformer then you will probably come across the terms ‘step up’ and ‘step down.’ Basically, a transformer can either bring the voltage ‘up’ or ‘down’ depending on requirements. If you want to power up a machine that runs on 110 V in an environment with an electrical supply of 220 volts, you will need a ‘step down’ transformer to make it work. Since the machine requires 110 volts by design, you have to supply it with the same voltage input—thus, your transformer needs to bring the 220 V supplied by the mains down to 110 V.
What would happen if you plug a 110 volt device directly into a 220 volt electrical plug? If it is a heating device, then the amount of heat will be multiplied, which in turn damages the device (often irreparably). If it is run by an AC drive, then it will burn the item readily. If it is a DC drive, then the unit will spin twice as fast and will affect the quality of the components quickly. To protect your machines as well as your electrical lines, you will need a transformer converter from 220 volts to 110 volts. With this device switched on, you can safely plug in products that require a 110 V input.
So how does a transformer converter work? There are actually no moving parts; the transformer is a stationary unit that aids in converting a high voltage output to a lower voltage output that is suitable for your equipment. No changes in frequency occur in a transformer. Only the voltage and the current is converted in the whole transformer process.
A transformer works based on the mutual induction principle. A change in the current will induce an electromotive force in the other coil to which it is connected. With a step down transformer, the first coil has more turns compared to the secondary coil. This causes the voltage to be reduced as well.