Most people know that a step-down transformer converts 220v to 110v. But have you ever wondered how exactly this small equipment does the conversion? What is the principle behind the voltage transformer?
It’s easy to understand how a step-down transformer works. Just imagine a basic transformer with two coils: primary and secondary. These two coils are separated from each other electrically and physically. However, they are both wrapped around an iron core ring. The primary coil is connected to an AC input voltage while the secondary coil is connected to an output circuit.
In a step-down transformer, the primary coil has more turns or windings than the secondary coil. When the transformer is turned on, the alternating current creates a magnetic field in the primary coil, resulting in a magnetic flux in the transformer core. The secondary coil, which is also linked to the core, will convert the flux back into the current flow, producing a voltage. But this time, since it has fewer turns, the voltage output is lower. That’s how a 220v primary voltage is reduced to 110v secondary voltage.
This is also the working principle behind a step-up transformer. The only difference is that its primary coil has less turns than its secondary coil. This means that the voltage output is greater than the voltage input.
In the US, you won’t see a lot of households using a step-down transformer too much since the country runs on 110v. But in Europe, Australia, and some parts of Asia, electricity companies supply 220v to residential houses. So, if you are moving or traveling to 220v countries, you’ll need a step-down transformer to safely use your 110v electronics.
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